Animism is the concentration of those foundational powers within high-status members of social groups and is most common with clans and tribes. Monotheism evolved in the same manner whereas polytheism is more common within larger and more intellectually and economically sophisticated societies.
The concept of family varies considerably among different types of societies. Kinship societies are unique in the degree to which the concept of family encompasses horizontal relations as well as vertical relations. The study of terminology is important precisely because similar phrases such as “family” and “kin” have such different connotations in different societies. Whereas kinship societies are typically endogamous, larger human societies are almost always exogamous and subscribe to strong cultural taboos prohibiting incest. Within kinship societies, endogamous rules apply only to vertical and immediate horizontal relations.
5. Applied Anthropology:
Academic anthropology refers to the empirical study of human societies and to anthropological research.
Generally, the primary purpose of academic anthropology is mainly to contribute to the breadth and depth of human knowledge about the nature, origin, and evolution of different types of human societies and cultures. Conversely, applied anthropology refers to the practical application of anthropological data and analysis for the specific purpose of addressing or rectifying existing issues and problems within contemporary (and future) human societies. In the broadest sense, academic anthropology is the conceptual basis of all applied anthropology. However, in the practical sense, one could easily argue that contemporary academic anthropology is already advanced enough to allow applied anthropology to contribute maximally to human societies without further exploration of relative minutia. Meanwhile, applied anthropology is a powerful mechanism for addressing and resolving real-world issues in human societies. Therefore, while applied anthropology does rely on academic anthropology in principle, the former is more relevant and meaningful to human life.