Likewise, it would have been advisable to conduct observations at different times of year so as to be able to anticipate the range of climatic conditions. The results of those series of experiments and observations would have allowed planners to stock future vessels with the necessary supplies (such as seeds, grains, raw materials, tools, and weapons) to ensure the safety and likely success of permanent settlements.
Another approach that would have been preferable to the ad-hoc method of dealing with issues as they arose would have been to allow those preliminary expeditions to remain on the continent long enough to actually test out proposed methods of sustenance and self-protection. Only after they demonstrate the viability of their plans for establishing a settlement should any families (and children, especially) have been sent to live in untested circumstances.
It would also have been advisable to establish formal arrangements for leadership and hierarchy of authority before departure and to include lawmakers, architects, builders, laborers, farmers, trappers, soldiers, and all of the other types of professionals and artisans whose services have value in contemporary society. In principle, any newly established society would eventually require all of the same specialties and talents that are in demand within their original society of origin. Similarly, there should have been long-term logistical planning for re-supplying the new settlement with raw materials as well as with any additional supplies that might not have been anticipated in.