The dependent variable was a measure of stress by virtue of physiological responses. Those variables were perfectly chosen for the study topic.
The hypothesis was that exposure to music during the immediate pre-operative period would correspond to a reduction in stress in the experimental group as compared with the control group. This hypothesis is perfectly appropriate and capable of empirical testing for substantiation or non-substantiation.
Sampling, Research Design, and Data Collection Methods
The sample size was very small and acknowledged as an inherent limitation of the study. Other limitations included the use only of subjects scheduled for minor arthroscopic surgery and the fact that subjects could have changed their responses to please the researchers.
The research design and collection methods were appropriate in that they utilized and collected objective physiological data that are generally relevant to stress. However, that design presumed that (1) the specific data collected necessarily corresponded to stress, and (2) that there were no other equally (or more) relevant measures than the specific data chosen for collection.
Data Analysis and Interpretation and Discussion of Findings
The data did reveal statistically significant reductions in stress to the extent that the data chosen in the experimental design correspond to stress. The researchers conclusions that the issue warrants further (and broader) study and that the use of music should be increased are both logical and appropriate to the.