Alcoholism will be defined, according to the DSM as a “maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:a failure to fulfill major role obligations; & #8230;recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous; & #8230;recurrent substance-related legal problems;” and “continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance” (Alcohol abuse diagnosis, 2011, Mental Health Channel).
Operational definition of dependent variables 2: Subjects will be asked to answer a questionnaire on current behaviors, to see if they cohere with the above DSM definition of alcoholism.
Operational definition for the independent variables 2: Losing a spouse will be defined as having lost a partner with whom the individual was either a. legally married to or b. had a significant, committed cohabitating relationship in excess of five years. Single will be defined has having no significant relationship involving cohabitation, while married will be defined as currently having either a legal union or having cohabitated with an individual for more than five years and/or significant emotional and economic ties with another individual.
Operational definition of dependent variables 2: Subjects will be asked to answer a questionnaire on current behaviors, to see if they cohere with the above-cited DSM definition